Rajasthan is India's largest state by area. It is located on the north western side of the India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the "Rajasthan Desert" and "Great Indian Desert") and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north; Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to the northeast; Madhya Pradesh to the southeast; and Gujarat to the southwest.
Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Kalibanga; the Dilwara Temples, a Jain pilgrimage site at Rajasthan's only hill station, Mount Abu, in the ancient Aravalli mountain range; and, in eastern Rajasthan, the Keoladeo National Park near Bharatpur, a World Heritage Site known for its bird life. Rajasthan is also home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota.
The state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana ? the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Udaipur, Bikaner, Kota and Ajmer.
The land of Rajasthan has witnessed the rule of many great kings and rulers. Home to many different leaders, Rajasthan has witnessed the opulence of the Rajputs, the chivalry of the Mughals, and the extravaganza lifestyle of Jat rulers.Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India, is said to roughly corresponded to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur.The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar, which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata.
Gurjars ruled for many dynasties in this part of the country, the region was known as Gurjaratra.Up to the tenth century almost the whole of North India, acknowledged the supremacy of the Gurjars with their seat of power at Kannauj.The Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara Pratihara empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was openly acknowledged by the Arab writers. He further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India.
Over the years, the Mughals began to have internal disputes which greatly distracted them at times. The Mughal Empire continued to weaken, and with the decline of the Mughal Empire in the late 18th century, Rajputana came under the influence of the Marathas. The Maratha Empire, which had replaced the Mughal Empire as the overlord of the subcontinent, was finally replaced by the British Empire in 1818.
Most of the Rajputs passed under the control of the Maratha Empire and continued to pay tribute to Pune. This kept on happening till the British East India Company replaced the Marathas as preeminent rulers. In 1857, the British started their rule in India and most Rajput states allied with them. Association of Rajput and British allowed Rajasthan to continue as independent states, subject to certain political and economic constraints. Under the British rule, the nineteen Rajput states signed a treaty and came under an umbrella called Rajasthan.
Language And Culture
Rajasthani refers to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken primarily in the state of Rajasthan and adjacent areas of Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh in India. Rajasthani languages are distinct from neighbouring related languages such as Punjabi and Hindi, though due to apparent similarities and political reasons, they are sometimes conflated with the latter.
Rajasthan has artistic and cultural traditions which reflect the ancient Indian way of life. Highly cultivated classical music and dance with its own distinct style is part of the cultural tradition of Rajasthan. The music is uncomplicated and songs depict day-to-day relationships and chores, more often focused around fetching water from wells or ponds.The Ghoomar dance from Udaipur and Kalbeliya dance of Jaisalmer have gained international recognition. Folk music is a vital part of Rajasthani culture. Kathputali, Bhopa, Chang, Teratali, Ghindar, Kachchhighori, Tejaji,parth dance etc. are the examples of the traditional Rajasthani culture.
Chinkara (Gazella bennettii)
Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps)
Rohida (Tecomella undulata)
Khejri (Prosopis cineraria)
3.City Palace of Jaipur
5.Albert Hall Museum
How to Reach
Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGI), at New Delhi is the nearest airport which is located at a distance of 250 KM. Regular flights connecting the major cities like Delhi and Mumbai to Jaipur, Jodhpur and Udaipur.
Along with the Jaipur International Airport, there are two major airports at Jodhpur and Udaipur that have access to several flights boosting tourism in the state.
Rajasthan has a good network of rail with direct superfast and other express trains from Delhi and Mumbai. Cities like Mumbai, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner and Udaipur are connected with the daily superfast trains. There is a 4600 km of railway track. Jaipur is connected to the other major cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad with a network of broad-gauge. Jaipur is the head quarter of North-West Railways.
The national highway of Rajasthan is measured 5655 km while the state highway is of 8627 km. NH8 passes through Jaipur and Udaipur. A four lane road connects Agra to Jaipur.